This Geneva score for pulmonary embolism calculator can calculate the risk for PE based on any of the three Geneva models the original, revised and simplified. You can read more about the Geneva scores and their criteria below the form.
How does this Geneva score for pulmonary embolism calculator work?
This is a health score designed to risk assess the probability of pulmonary embolism based on the three versions of the PE score, each in a different tab so you can use any of them or compare them as preferred. This Geneva score for pulmonary embolism calculator is based on risk factors and clinical determinations and is considered to be one of the most accurate available.
1. The revised Geneva score has been introduced more recently and uses 8 parameters as it does not include the arterial blood gas sample found in the original model. The revised version of the Geneva score is considered to be as effective as other PE risk models such as the Wells score.
|Age >65||1||Age increases the risk of PE|
|Previous DVT or PE||3||Previous deep venous thrombosis is a risk factor|
|Surgery or fracture in the last 4 weeks||2||Due to risk of vessel damage and prolonged immobilization in recovery|
|Active malignant condition||2||It has been demonstrated that in cancer patient the risk is higher|
|Unilateral lower limb pain||3||Pain or swelling are suggestive of blood stagnation or DVT|
|Pain on palpation of lower limb and unilateral edema||4||Pain or swelling are suggestive of blood stagnation or DVT|
|Hemoptysis||3||expectoration of blood or blood-tinged sputum|
|Heart rate 75-94 bpm||3||Increased heart rate as a symptom|
|Heart rate >94 bpm||5||Rapid heart rate as sign of pulmonary embolism|
2. The original Geneva score comprises of 7 risk factors and other clinical parameters and is set to give a higher relevance to age groups and the partial pressures of O2 and CO2 in arterial blood.
|Age 60 - 79||1||Age is a risk factor in PE|
|Age >80||2||The greater the age is the higher the risk|
|Previous DVT or PE||2||A history of deep venous thrombosis or another PE increases risk|
|Recent surgery in past 4 weeks||3||Recent surgery suggests immobilization or risk of vessel damage|
|Heart rate >100 bpm||1||Rapid heart rate as sign of PE|
|PaCO2 <35 mmHg||2||Decreased pressure shows that the embolized areas are not functioning properly|
|PaCO2 35 - 39 mmHg||1||Sign of hyperventilation|
|PaO2 <49 mmHg||4||Indicative of pulmonary obstruction|
|PaO2 49 - 59 mmHg||3||Sign of hypoventilation|
|PaO2 60 - 71 mmHg||2||Used as part of the pressure ratio in PE risk assessment|
|PaO2 72 - 82 mmHg||1||Low decrease in partial oxygen pressure|
|X ray - band atelectasis||1||Atelectasis due to loss of blood flow and lack of CO2|
|X ray - hemidiaphragm elevation||1||Highly suggestive imagistic of acute PE|
3. The simplified Geneva score is the latest version dating from 2008. It is based more on the revised version as it keeps its criteria but changes each element’s weight to just 1 score point in an attempt to make the model easier to remember and less prone to inaccuracies. The only factor that is awarded 2 points is the heart rate >94 bpm.
Clinical probability in the Geneva models for PE
The clinical assessment of a suspected acute pulmonary embolism is very important in this common hospital admission cause. The result of the scoring models categorizes patients in low, intermediate or high risk groups. These are the Geneva PE probability scores and their interpretation:
|Geneva model||Total score||PE probability|
|Original||0 - 5||Low|
|5 - 8||Intermediate|
|Revised||0 - 3||Low 8%|
|4 - 10||Intermediate 28%|
|Simplified||0 - 2||Unlikely|
Causes of pulmonary embolism
This is a very serious condition that occurs when the pulmonary artery that carries blood to the lungs becomes blocked, usually by a blood clot. In most cases it is a clot formed in one of the deep beins in the legs, phenomenon called DVT (deep vain thrombosis). The main factors that contribute to the risk of blood clot development are inactivity, blood vessel damage and blood that clots easily.
Inactivity – because the blood slows down and facilitates the formation of clots: e.g. after a debilitating illness, operation or after a very long journey by train, car etc.
Blood vessel damage – e.g. narrowing or blockage that prevents direct normal blood flow and favors the formation of clots and also the inflammation of the blood vessels (vasculitis).
Conditions where blood clots easily – e.g. heart failure, thrombophilia, Hughes syndrome, chemotherapy. Amongst other factors there is age over 60, previous blood clots, obesity, family history, pregnancy, smoking.
Other PE scoring systems
Beside the three Geneva models there is also the Wells score with two versions, one original and one simplified, a Charlotte rule and the PISA model. All these use clinical determinations and other patient risk factors to assess the clinical probability of PE.
The Wells model takes account of the following factors:
- DVT evidence (swelling)
- Heart rate >100bpm
- Previous DVT or PE
- Immobilization in the past month
- PE as a highly likely diagnosis
The Charlotte rule uses the following criteria:
- Age > 50
- Heart rate > systolic blood pressure
- Surgery in past month
- Unilateral leg swelling
- Unexplained pulse oximetry <95%
The Pisa model includes 10 variables positively associated with pulmonary embolism (age, gender, immobilization, DVT history, dyspnea, chest pain, syncope, hemoptysis, unilateral leg swelling, ECG determination) and six negatively associated with PE (cardiovascular disease or pulmonary disease history, orthopnea, fever, wheezes and crackles).
1) Klok FA, Mos IC, Nijkeuter M et al. (Oct. 2008). Simplification of the revised Geneva score for assessing clinical probability of pulmonary embolism. Archives of Internal Medicine 168 (19): 2131–6.
2) Le Gal G, Righini M, Roy PM et al. (Feb. 2006). Prediction of pulmonary embolism in the emergency department: the revised Geneva score. Annals of Internal Medicine 144 (3): 165–71.26 Jun, 2015